|Recent progress in the fields of epidemiology, biochemistry and mycobacterium genetics provide exciting new opportunities for developing new strategies for prevention and treatment of mycobacterium diseases. The proposed TB Prevention Cluster provides multidisciplinary European approach based on an integrated, goal-oriented strategy. The Cluster combines three areas of fundamental importance to tackle the problem of tuberculosis: (I) cell wall structure, permeability and innate drug resistance; (ii) novel drug targets;(iii) transmissibility and prevention strategies. The overall goal of the Cluster is to contribute to strategies for preventing spread of resistance, to identify strategies to overcome innate mycobacterium drug resistance, to characterize targets for future drug design, to develop more effective tools for epidemiological monitoring and for diagnosis of infection, to identify factors determining transmission. The outcomes of the Cluster contributing to more effective measurements for prevention of tuberculosis and fuelling into strategies for optimal use of existing antimycobacterial agents and identification of novel targets for anti-infective drugs would have a major impact on tuberculosis control in the European Union and worldwide.